The challenge

Renewable energy production based on solar cells or wind turbines with power electronic energy converters is becoming more widespread, which is leading to a reduction in the number of power plants with synchronous machines. Consequently, the total inertia in the power system will be reduced. Ultimately, this could make it difficult to maintain frequency control and grid stability margins.

The goal

This project will develop methods for assessing the value of and the requirements for inertia emulation from HVDC transmission schemes. In order to meet the requirements, it is also important to analyse how control systems for different types of converter stations in such systems should be designed.

The project

High voltage DC connections (HVDC systems) can help avoid issues related to low equivalent inertia if the systems’ power electronic energy converters can be regulated to provide virtual inertia. The project will examine whether this can be achieved by having the control system in the converter stations emulate the general characteristics of a synchronous generator. Accurate HVDC models, as well as real-time simulation of control algorithms, will also be used to assess system stability.

Project team members

  • Statnett
  • Equinor Energy AS
  • RTE
  • Elia
  • The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)
  • Central de Lille
  • L2EP – Centrale Lille
  • KU Leuven


The Research Council of Norway (ENERGIX programme)